TPACK vignette - Using Wikipedia in the social studies classroom

One of the most significant challenges facing social studies teachers in 1:1 computing environments is the condition of persistent access to information, and one source of information that generates more attention in social studies than perhaps another other single resource is Wikipedia. The mere availability of Wikipedia in the social studies classroom in some ways turns upside down generations of assumptions about authority and information. With access to Wikipedia, answers to simple and uncontested questions are likely to never been left unanswered. Wikipedia extends the range of possibilities for students who are seeking information on common topics, but also raises questions about knowledge authority in the classroom. Wikipedia is at root a socially constructed resource and a knowledge community, but in most academic circles it is often devalued and afforded little privilege (Davidson, 2007). When students have access to Wikipedia, the teacher losses some control over which interpretations about the past are valued and over which messages are injected into the classroom culture. But on a simpler level, Wikipedia ‘s open authoring platform results in uneven content quality and requires that students using the resource be more critical in their considerations of content. Although some Wikipedia articles are often quite trustworthy, there are no obvious signs on a Wikipedia article to signal for students that the content should be trusted.

Teachers have several options for how to utilize Wikipedia. At one extreme, they might completely reject the resource as unreliable and disruptive, but teachers’ ability in 1:1 computing environments to "turn off" Wikipedia is limited. Teachers might also try to use Wikipedia as a context for working with students on critical media literacy skills. By approaching Wikipedia as a context for developing critical skills and dispositions for using information, teachers are embracing conditions that are a real part of their teaching world and enabling students to be better prepared to use information in productive ways.

Professional development on using Wikipedia in the social studies classroom might begin with specific activities that can be scaled for use in the classroom with K-12 students, but would start with teachers engaging in personal learning experiences. One approach to using Wikipedia is to use the resources to help learners (teachers and students) develop skills needed in historical inquiry, specifically by introducing the concept and practice of historical thinking. This involves using the history and discussion portions of Wikipedia articles to consider questions of how we know and what we know about the past, both important questions in the historical inquiry process. As teachers encounter Wikipedia in 1:1 computing environments they must make decisions about whether and how they might use the resource. A careful consideration of Wikipedia in the context of academic ways of knowing in history and social studies can result in specific instructional uses such as the one described here. These instructional outcomes are representations of TPACK.

Davidson, C. (2007, March 23). We can't ignore the influence of digital technologies. Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(29), n.p.

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Learn Digital History Blog

Teaching about Historical Reconstructions using the Vail Telegraph Key

The reconstruction of historical inventions can provide a powerful context for students to explore how inventions affect society. In fact, the social impact of the invention of the telegraph ripples through to today. It set the stage for the invention of other communications technologies such as radio, television, and the Internet. The ability to send messages across wires in a fraction of the time humans were accustomed had a profound impact on society. Rossiter Johnson captured the spirit of that change in an 1882 poem written in tribute Morse and the telegraph. The poem describes limits of humans imposed by nature, but imagines that with the invention of the telegraph those limitations begin to fade away.

But one morning he made him a slender wire,
  As an artist’s vision took life and form,
While he drew from heaven the strange fierce fire
  That reddens the edge of the midnight storm;
And he carried it over the Mountain’s crest,
And dropped it into the Ocean’s breast;
And Science proclaimed, from shore to shore,
That Time and Space ruled man no more.

Students often have myopic views about how technologies impact their own lives. While it is true that students today seem to live in a constant state of ‘revolution’ regarding new technologies, an understanding of history can temper our enthusiasms. By studying records and relics from the past, such as Johnson’s poem, students can build up a long view of technological innovation and understand how the telegraph fits in that history.

Students can also use these experiences to explore important historical skills related to cause and effect. A reconstruction of the Vail telegraph key provides students with an opportunity to examine the development of scientific knowledge and challenge the narrowly constructed textbook history of the telegraph.

The history of the telegraph is typically transmitted to students as a neat and tidy story about Samuel Morse and the 1844 transmission from Baltimore to Washington DC of the message “What hath God wrought?” But, history is never so simple. Behind the story of Morse is the complex history of the invention of the telegraph, and that story is impossible to tell with Alfred Vail.

A social studies activity exploring this complicated history might begin with the simple question – Who was on the other end of the message sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844? Of course, it was Alfred Vail. From there, students might explore Vail’s 1845 book length survey of the history of the telegraph, The American Electro Magnetic Telegraph: With the Reports of Congress, and a Description of all Telegraphs Known, Employing Electricity or Galvanism.  The book, which has three parts, includes a detailed description of the telegraph system developed by Vail and Morse; letters, reports, and other correspondences about the development of the telegraph system; and a contemporary history of the telegraph. Students can analyze this source to develop questions for inquiry about the development of the telegraph in the 1830s and 1840s.

From Hathi trust and Harvard Library at

The Lincoln Telegram project provides another avenue for exploring the newly invented telegraph and, specifically, how it affected the course of the Civil War and its participants.

The Lincoln Telegrams Project

The Lincoln Telegrams project ( includes digital versions and transcriptions of 354 telegram memos written by Lincoln from March 10, 1864 to his death in April of 1865.  The telegram memos function as source material for helping students and teachers understand how to analyze historical sources using the Hicks, Doolittle, and Ewing’s SCIM-C method ( Direct access to the telegrams, either via the web or through an iPad app with the same content, allows students to explore the historical context and follow the ways in which the telegraph affected communications during that era.

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